Arthur Brisbane was a run-of-the-mill newspaperman, no better and no worse than a he receives free publicity in newspa. King of Siam was an absolute monarch, he did not want to behead his unfaithful wife without BARRON's 1. BARRON'S Basic Word List in Hindi. Increase thy ability to earn —The Richest Man in Babylon READ ON FOR MORE! graduate or anyone who seems baffled by th.
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Barron's SAT I Basic Word List abrade. V. /磨损，侵蚀/wear away by friction; scrape; erode. The sharp rocks abraded the skin on her legs, so she put iodine on. Barrons GRE High-Frequency Words. Vocabulary List. WORD. MEANING. Abate subside, or moderate. Aberrant abnormal, or deviant. Abeyance. Barron's High-Frequency GRE Word List Study online at baspogophoba.cf 1. ABATE TO DECREASE; REDUCE ALLURE THE POWER TO ENTICE BY.
Not all migration is long distance. Some species exhibit altitudinal migration. Many rock pt: An extreme example of nonstop bird migration is done by the 1BrE: At the start of its trip, about 55 percent3 of its body weight is made up of the fat necessary to fue. How birds manage to unerringly travel between distant locations is one aspect that has fascinated obsetvers for centurtes. Modem-day researchers have attempted to understand this feat. Most studies have found that migratory birds all have some ability to navigate and an innate drive to travel in a particular direction.
Nocturnal migrants, those species that travel at night, seem to take their navigational cues from the stars. When the stars are obscured by clouds, nocturnal migrants may become confused and return to land or stray off course.
In addition, diurnal migrants have also been shown to use geographic features such as mountain ranges or seacoasts as other cues for navigation. Because the stars and the sun move constantly over the course of twenty-four hours, this suggests that migrating birds also have some sense of time.
Answer the questions about Bird Migration. Questions Do the following statements agree with the information in the reading passage? Write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information. FALSE if the statement contradicts the information. Transequatorial birds cross from one hemisphere to the other when they migrate. Many migratory birds breed in the Southern Hemisphere.
Migrating birds spend the warm months where conditions for breeding are optimal. Many birds fail in their migration because they do not have enough body fat to fuel the journey. Match each type ofbird with the correct description.
Write the correct letter, A or B. They navigate by looking at the sun. They navigate by looking at the stars. They may stop flying when clouds obscure the sky. They navigate by looking at landforms. My Words I Write the words that are new tD you. Look them up In the dictionary.
Words Definitions 21 Through the evolutlonacy process, birds have developed adaptations that allow them to survive in ditierent envtronrrtents. Hts fascination with birds is not hard to understand, because there are several bird-watchers in his family. The study of the lives of birds fascinates many people. The study of birdsong is a fascinating subject. Bird migration generally takes place twtce a year.
Migrants stop to rest several times during their journey. Some birds migrate thousands of miles to reach their summer breeding grounds. Scientists study the habits of mtgratocy birds. Migratory birds are amazing navigators. Birds navigate by looking at the sun and stars. Migratory bfrds are born with navigational skills; they don't have to learn them. We can leant a great deal about the lives of birds through simple obseiVatlon.
If birds become aware of the presence of an observer, they quickly fly away. Many people obseiVe birds as a hobby. You have to be reaJly obsexvant to spot most types of blrds. Birds are The best time to watch birds is in the early morning, because birds are usually very active at that time of day.
The 2. If you llve in a part of the world where 3. Over the ages, dif- ferent species of birds have It makes an interesting study to look at the different types of nests built by birds and to watch them as they build their nests.
After the breeding season is over and the babies have left the nest, it is time for the birds to head for warmer parts of the world to spend the winter months. Birds 5.
Read the dtcttonary definitions below. Then read the sentences and write the letter ofthe correct definitionfor each sentence. It is our imperative to protect the natural environment.
It is imperative to keep dogs and cats away from the bird breeding area. Look at the map below labeled A-E. Look at the list ofplaces and write the correct letter, A-E, next to numbers 1-IJ.
Many people enjoy observing birds because they find them fascinating. Why do you think people are fascinated by birds? Are you fascinated by birds? Why or why not?
What animals are fascinating to you? Mutch each word with its correct definition. Words Definitions 1. Yet, transitional areas between the open desert and oases on the desert fringe support diverse plant forms that not only have adapted to the harsh conditions but actually thrive there. Successful desert plants are resilient to scorching summers and frigid winters, drought, and high-salt conditions. The plants' principal defense4 against these environmental stressors consists of drawing in as much water as possible while minimizing moisture loss.
Tamarix ramosissima, and Alhagi sparsifolta-represent some ofthe most diverse, prolific vegetation in the area; although they share many sUIVival strategies, each has developed unique coping mechanisms of its own.
The Euphrates poplar, Populus euphrattca. These stomata generally remain open during the day while the plant conducts photosynthesis. It takes in unlimited amounts of salt through the roots, up the stem, and into leaves, where it dilutes the normally toxic salt by increasing the number and volume of its cells. Tamarix ramosissima, a small tree with needlelike leaves commonly known as tamarisk or salt cedar, takes in enormous amounts of water via a far-reaching root system many times the size of the plant above ground.
Like P. Alhagi sparsifolta. Most of its roots reach down deep, where they take up water from as far as sixteen meters below ground. Unlike P. Most of the Taklimakan Desert is covered with A tamarisk. B spiny plants. C sand dunes. D diverse plant life. Plants in the Takltmakan Desert A grow only in areas above meters high.
B thrive in extreme conditions. C are not very hardy. D are mostly tall trees. Environmental stressors in the Taklimakan Desert include A sparse sunlight. B lack of salt in the soU. C extreme temperatures. D periods of heavy rainfall. Choosefour answersfrom the list below. A Having strong roots that can hold on during violent sandstorms B Closing pores to minimize loss of moisture C Occupying a place in the shade of a larger plant to avoid the scorch- ing desert sun D Diluting the salt that the plant takes in E Having large root systems that can reach water far from the plant F Adding salt to the soU to minlm1ze competition from other plants G Accumulating water in the leaves of the plant My Words Write the words that are new to you.
Look them up in the dictionary and write their definitions. Words Definitions 30 Word Families noun adaptation verb adapt adjective adaptable noun diversity noun diversification verb diversify adjective diverse noun extreme adjective extreme adverb extremely UNIT 1: One way that plants adapt to the dry desert is by developing deep root systems.
There is a great diversity of plant life on the fringe of the Takltmakan Desert. Change tn cltmate can result 1n species diverstftcation. The diverse ways that plants adapt to desert conditions makes a fascinating study.
Temperatures tn the Taklimakan Desert reach an extreme during hot summer days. Many plants cannot endure the extreme heat of the desert. The weather tn a desert is usually extremely dry. Desert plants are resilient to heat and dryness. Desert plants grow resiliently in the heat. A long period of dryness causes a lot of stress to plants. The main stressor in a desert is lack of rain.
Heat and drought both stress plants. Certain plants thrive in the desert despite the stressful conditions. The violence of sandstorms keeps many plants from thriving in the desert. Violent winds tear up many plants or cover them with sand. The winds blow violently during a sandstorm. Desert plants have a variety of 1.
Because a desert is 2. Special root systems and types of leaves enable them to do this. Another source of 3. Considering the diftlcult conditions 1n a desert, the 6.
Violence Violent Violently 6. Read the definitions below. Then read the sentences and write the letter of the correct definitionfor each sentence.
The children played on the swing all afternoon. After a rainstorm in the desert, there is a noticeable swing back to life. The swing of the branches 1n the breeze made a creaking noise. Complete the notes below. Talrltmakan Desert Plants Many plants Uve in the Summartze1 the information by selecting and reporting the main information and making comparisons. Sahara Desert Afd.
Are you interested in visiting extreme environments, such as deserts or high mountains? Why do you think people like to visit extreme environments?
When you travel. Unit 2: Match each word wtth its correct definition. Notice that everything else that fllls your whole area ofpossible sight is indistinct. We tolerate this large outlying field of blur. We unconsciously accept it.
Sometimes we take charge of howwe process all that blur surrounding the tiny center1 that our vision is focused on. Athletes best demonstratejust how much we can use the entire range of our vision, fanning out to the periphety. An athlete's performance, necessitating high levels of coordination and reaction time, depends on tratntng visual abilities, not just tuning muscles.
Detecting and keeping track of as much motion as possible whUe perfonning physical maneuvers Is quite a feat. Peripheral visual information is processed quickly. Each peripherally viewed movement must be immediately processed as more and varied movements from different sources and directions keep coming rapidly.
The athlete's view, full of movement, requires rapid scanning with visual focus changing rapidly among various distances. A volleyball player, for example, must pay attention to body positioning in relation to the speed and angle of the moving ball as well as to the court boundaries.
Athletes need as much peripheral range as possible. The environment contributes to athletes' visual sharpness. It seems odd that visiting baseball teams are allowed to dress in gray uniforms when bright colors would help the home team keep a better eye on them. Everything that catches the athlete's attention causes the eyes to pause almost indiscerntbly as they gather a quick view of focused detail.
As the eyes move in and out of focus, there Is a momentary blur between each pause. This Is when visual tracking errors can occur.
Even the act of bl1nldng, usually at a rate of twenty-five blinks per minute, or one-tenth 1 BrE: UNIT 2: Normal, natural blinking means the eyes are closed for two and half seconds out of evety minute, and more than that if the athlete is anxious. This is added to the rapid blurs that occur as the athlete's eyes move in and out of focus on speciftc objects.
These nonvisual moments can be somewhat compensated for if the athlete thoroughly tunes in to the game. Anticipation, a learned and practiced2 art, can serve the athlete well in many ways. Answer the questions about Peripheral Vision In Sports. Questions Do thefollowing statements agree with the information in the reading passage? Wrtte TRUE ifthe statement agrees with the information. FALSE ifthe statement contradicts the information.
Peripheral vision refers to what we see near the boundaries of our visual range. Focusing our eyes on one object only will cause that object to look indistinct.
In addition to physical abilities. Office workers tend to find that certain kinds of mcN'ements are more distracting than others. A volleyball player does not need to focus on the movements of the other players on the court. Poor lighting and confusing color combinations on uniforms can have a negative effect on an athlete's performance. Athletes blink more often when they are feeling anxious. Look them up in the dictionary and write their deftnttions. Words Definitions Word Families DOUD complication verb complicate adJective complicated 40 Playing a ball game is not as simple as it may look; there are many complications.
The need to pay attention to many things at once complicates the game for an athlete. An athlete must coordinate physical skill wtth sharp vtsion to play a game well. The coordinated movements of all the team members will help them win the game. The athlete gave a demonstration of the correct way to throw the ball. Professional athletes demonstrate a htgh level of skills.
The way that goal was scored was demonstrative of good teamwork in action. The team gave an excellent performance at last night's game. All the performers did a good job. The entire team performed well during the game. An athlete should have tolerance for hard physical actlvtty. Athletes need to be able to tolerate a htgh level of action around them. Good athletes always try to do their best but must stlll be tolerant of occasional failure. In sports, visual abilities can be as important as physical abilities.
The coach used drawings to explain the game visually. Choose the correct wordfwnUy memberfrom the list below to complete each blank. In order to Naturally, she should 2. In addition to strength, 3. The athlete also needs to have good She needs to be able to see what is happen- ing around her so that she can respond to the other players' maneuvers.
She has to be 5. Finally, she needs to be a fast thinker. Complications Complicate Complicated 42 Blur can also be either a noun or a verb. Read the dictionary definitions below. Then read the sentences and write the letter ofthe correct deftnitionfor each sentence. When playing a game.
Keep yourfocus on the goal. Vision and Basketball Basketball players have to They have to 2. They 3. Do you focus better on your studies or work when you are in a quiet environment, or do you prefer to have activity going on around you?
What kinds of things are distracting to you when you study or work? Do you anticipate any major changes in your work or study situation in the next year? Although the modem circus has been around for a few centuries, related forms of public entertainment have been in existence for millennia. The ancient Romans were the first to enjoy the circus.
Around the sixth centwy B. These entertainments were less common than chariot races but still vecy popular. The original Circus Maximus venue was built entirely of wood. Chariot races continued to be held at the Circus Maximus for almost a centwy after the last remnants of the Roman Empire had vanished. It was during the Dark Ages that the circus began to develop into what we know today.
The monarchs of Europe had court jesters, whose duty it was to provide amusement for the court. These performers made up the medieval circus, which had little in common with the Circus Max: Leisure time was extremely rare during the Dark Ages, and people had few opportunities to enjoy circus performances. However, the circus survived to make a return to its former grandeur in the eighteenth centucy.
England was one of the first nations to embrace the modem circus. During the late s, an Englishman named Phtlip Astley founded the first modem circus. He was a skilled rider who invented stunt riding on horseback. He performed his stunts in a circus ring, another of his ideas, within an indoor stadium. He later expanded his act to include clowns, acrobats, and parades of trained animals. The last addition to his act was slapstick humor.
He had horseback riders 1BrE: Shortly after Astley's death, the circus spread to America. During the early s, the United States took to the circus quickly after learning of its popularity in Europe. Joshua Brown, an American businessman, introduced the circus tent in The use of portable tents allowed him to take his act all over the country.
Most circuses today are variations of Brown's circus. Answer the questions about History of the Circus. Questions Do thejoUowtng describe the ancient circus, the modem circus, or both? Write the correct letter; A. B, or C. The Circus Maximus A was not a popular place to visit. B developed during the Dark Ages. C went through a number of renovations. D took place in a portable tent.
The court jesters of the Dark Ages usually A were sk11led animal trainers. B had several different talents. C performed at village festivals.
D entertained the common people. In the eighteenth century, the modem circus was founded by A a horse rider from England. B a Roman businessman. D a band of American entertainers. My Words Write the words that are new to you. Look them up in the di. Words Defmitions 48 Philip Astley is known as the developer of stunt riding. The circus has developed in different ways over the years. The circus is still a favorite form of entertainment today. The job of a circus entertainer looks like fun, but it is really vecy diftlcult.
People often hire clowns to entertain children at parties. We spent a vecy entertaining afternoon at the circus. The permanence of the circus as a form of entertainment shows how much people enjoy it. UnUke the traveling bands of performers, court jesters had permanent jobs.
Circuses don't stay in one place permanently but travel around from city to city. Joshua Brown helped to popularize the circus in America. The circus is popular all over the world. The modem circus is popularly known as the Big Top.
The survival of the circus is due to its ability to change with the times. The circus has survived in many forms throughout the centuries. A circus animal trainer has to be able to work with exotic animals. Some animals are easier to train than others.
Many circuses use trained elephants in their show. The A skilled horseback rtder1 2. He later added other ld. The show became very 4.
The circus has 5. It holds a 6. Then read the sentences and write the letter of the correct deftnttionfor each sentence. After we found our seats, we sat down and enjoyed the circus performance. It takes a lot of money, effort, and daring to found an entertainment business. People walked around the tent in bands while they waited for the circus performance to begin. The performers wore brightly colored bands around their waists.
Choose the correct WISwer; A. B, or c. When was the Sprtngfleld Circus founded? A 25 years ago B 75 years ago C years ago 2. What has not changed since the circus was founded? What kinds of animals begin the show? What is the most popu1ar part of the show?
IWrite at least words. Speaking ITalk about thejoUowing topics. What forms of entertainment are popular 1n your city? Do you prefer to watch 1V and movies or to see Uve entertatnment?
Are you talented in any performing arts? What talents do you have that you would Uke to develop more? Match each word with its correct deftni. These reports appear to be a sign that we are not using our leisure time to our best advantage. B Health experts agree that the best way to restore body and mind is to spend time in nature pursuing a comfortable level of physical exercise.
Spending time in natural surroundings is especially crucial now because, for the first time, a majority of the world's population live in cities. Yet research shows that we are not spending our leisure time rejuvenating ourselves. Around the world, the most popular way to spend free time is watching television.
Parents are reluctant to let children play freely in the city, fearing for their health and safety, and nature is something many children in the city may never have a chance to expertence. Childhood obesity and depression are reaching epidemic levels. Authorttles have begun to acknowledge the problem, and innovative programs4 that gtve children an opportunity to spend time in nature are being introduced in countries around the world.
E Vacatlons5 are the most obvious chunk of leisure time.
The countries with the most vacation time are Italy, with an average of forty-two days a year, and France, with thirty-seven. The industrious Amertcans have the least: The Brttish usually divide up their vacation time, taking it in pieces throughout the year rather than all at once.
The British report the greatest satisfaction with their leisure time. Perhaps the rest of the world would do we11 to fo11ow their lead.
Answer the questions about Uses of Leisure Time. Questions The reading passage containsfive paragraphs, A-E. Which paragraphs discuss thefoUowing information? Write the correct letter, A-E. Why it is crucial to spend time in nature 3. In which country people spend the largest chunk of vacation time engaged in outdoor activities 4BrE: Holidays 57 We can best rejuvenate ourselves by spending time engaged in A physical activities.
B passive activities. C activities with children. D activities 1n the city. When chUdren do not spend time in nature, they A fear for their health and safety. B suffer from obesity and depression. C are reluctant to spend time with their parents. D have more time to develop their intellectual functioning. The ovexwhelming character of city life affects our A interest in nature. B choice of pastimes.
C relationships with children. D emotions and intellectual function. Words Definitions 58 Word Families noun authority verb authorize1 adjective authoritative adverb authoritatively DOUD deliberation verb deliberate adjective deliberate adverb deliberately noun emotion adjective emotional adverb emotionally 1BrE: The school director authorlzed the teachers to spend a larger chunk of the school day outdoors with their students.
According to an authoritative source, spending time in nature improves our health. The expert wrote authoritatively about the topic of exercise and its effects on mental health.
After deliberation, he decided to spend some time every day engaged in outdoor activities. The group deliberated for an hour before reaching a decision: It is obvious that people need to make a deliberate decision to spend more time in nature. We need to spend time in nature deliberately. The stress of city life can make emotions difficult to control.
Children who don't spend a lot of time playing outdoors can end up with emotional problems. People respond emotionally to the ovexwhelming stimuli of the city. He is always industrious even when engaged in leisure-time activities. He worked on his project industriously.
The stress of city life has effects on the intellect. I enjoy reading the works of the great intellectuals of the nine- teenth centwy. Some people enjoy spending their leisure time engaged in intellectual activities. Some people look for experiences that engage them intellectually. Reluctance to spend time in nature is a problem for modern children. People can be reluctant to leave their familiar city surroundings to explore unknown places.
They reluctantly agreed to spend their vacation at a national park. It is cructal to acknowledge the importance of leisure-time activities. They are not merely a way to use up free time. They are important for our physical and We need to choose activities that rest our minds and bodies so that we can feel rejuvenated when we return to work and can do our jobs more Some people enjoy The key is to be Many people feel 5.
However, Read the dejlnttions below. A verb. The school engaged a special teacher to teach classes about nature. Every afternoon, the children engage in outdoor activities.
Many people in this city work in the clothing industry. Industry will help you move up in your profession, but don't forget to spend some time in leisure activities as well. Complete the rwtes below. Research on Leisure People engaged in Popular Pastimes: Sports and exercise 60 20 What are some ofyour favorite pastimes?
Why do you enjoy them? The city's defenses were not strong enough to keep out the invaders. But the pair stressed that their work should not be construed as support for heavy cutting of trees or deforestation.
The environment is perfect for cloud based accounting applications. Forbes Jan 7, It was one of the first big groups in Argentina to champion no-till farming, a technique that reduces soil erosion.
Extend your arms out in front of you. He extended a hand in greeting. Wildlife Trust Wales said saving habitats is important as it could ensure a species' survival. The biofuels regulations result in higher food prices, and their impact on the environment is at best slightly positive and could be negative. And yet what makes this a good market to expand to might also inhibit growth. The evidence was scattered—a telephone intercept here, some video footage there, a license plate.
The illegal logging has become so prevalent that Western Australia's lawmakers are deliberating harsher penalties and boosting resources to prosecute poachers in a continuing inquiry.
Wall Street Journal Dec 28, But despite recent efforts to reinvigorate that tradition, today's local entrepreneurs face myriad challenges. If people really ate what they say they did, we should be able to see some of the food by-products or nutrients that were absorbed. Salon Jan 2, Chinese people almost anywhere in the country experience serious air and water pollution , and they have begun to complain vocally.
America saw the kind of wild change we see today in China, and in a new society with little to stabilize it. Such heavy elements, Loeb notes, are crucial when forming terrestrial planets like our own.
Forbes Dec 10, Zedler's contractors planted all three tracts with similar species to see how the vegetation would absorb and clean water runoff during storms. Sign up, it's free!